It has already been a decade and a half since the discovery of adiponectin and its role as an insulin sensitizer and only 7 years since its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, were described. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a DNA sequence variation that affects only one nucleotide; it may vary from one population to another with different predisposing factors to diseases and other ailments. Once some of the effects of adiponectin and its receptors were known, it was not long until an effort was made to find the associations between specific SNPs of the genes of this hormone and its receptors as genetic risk factors for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, although these genes were investigated as possible candidates related to the development of these metabolic disorders. All of these possible associations were studied in different populations from France, Finland, the United Kingdom, North America, and Japan, showing hardly concluding results, and because of that it is highly controversial to directly associate one of the genes mentioned above to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. All of these inconsistencies lead to a review that summarizes the SNPs of the genes of adiponectin, AdipoR1, and AdipoR2 that are mostly related to insulin resistance syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, although presenting the possible factors that should be taken into account to homogenize the results obtained until now.